A carotid artery duplex scan is used to assess blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery.
A cerebral arteriogram, also called an angiogram, is an x-ray image of the blood vessels in the brain. It is performed to evaluate various conditions, such as an aneurysm, narrowing of a blood vessel, or blockages.
Cervical disk replacement surgery involves removing a diseased cervical disk and replacing it with an artificial disk.
CT scans of the brain can provide detailed information about brain tissue and brain structures than standard x-rays of the head, thus providing more information related to injuries and/or diseases of the brain.
A CT scan of the spine may be performed to assess the spine for a herniated disk, tumors and other lesions, the extent of injuries, structural anomalies such as spina bifida, blood vessel malformations, or other conditions.
A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a type of therapy that uses electrical stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, multiple sclerosis, and certain other neurological conditions.
The EEG is used to evaluate several types of brain disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, certain psychoses, and certain sleep disorders.
Electromyography (EMG) measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve’s stimulation of the muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities.
Detailed information on electronystagmography (ENG), including the reasons and preparation for the procedure, how the procedure is performed, after care, and an anatomical illustration of the ear
Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a minimally invasive technique that allows a surgeon to go through the nose to correct problems or remove a tumor in various areas of the brain and the top of the spine.
The pituitary gland is located at the bottom of your brain and above the inside of your nose. Endoscopic pituitary surgery is the most common surgery used to remove pituitary tumors.
During endovascular coiling, a catheter is used to insert a small coil into an artery in the brain. The coil constricts the artery, blocking blood flow to an aneurysm.
Endovascular neurosurgery is a subspecialty within neurosurgery that uses catheters and radiology to diagnose and treat various conditions and diseases of the central nervous system.
Evoked potential studies may be used to assess hearing or sight, especially in infants and children, to diagnose disorders of the optic nerve, and to detect tumors or other problems affecting the brain and spinal cord.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery uses beams of highly focused gamma rays to treat small- to medium-sized lesions, usually in the brain.
Wounds need oxygen to heal properly, and exposing a wound to 100 percent oxygen can, in many cases, speed the healing process.
A lumbar disk replacement is a type of back surgery. It involves replacing a worn or degenerated disk in the lower part of your spine with an artificial replacement made of medical-grade metal or a combination of medical-grade metal and medical-grade plastic.
A lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure used to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for examination and diagnosis of various disorders.
MRI may be used to examine the brain and/or spinal cord for injuries or the presence of structural abnormalities or certain other conditions, including tumors or aneurysms.
A myelogram, also known as myelography, is a procedure that combines the use of dye with x-rays or CT scans to assess the spinal cord, subarachnoid space, or other structures for abnormalities, particularly when another type of examination, such as a standard x-ray, is inconclusive.
Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test - also called a nerve conduction study (NCS) - is a measurement of the speed of conduction of an electrical impulse through a nerve. NCV can determine nerve damage and destruction.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine various body tissues to identify certain conditions. PET may also be used to follow the progress of the treatment of certain conditions.
Skull base surgery may be done to remove both benign and cancerous growths, and abnormalities on the underside of the brain, the skull base, or the top few vertebrae of the spinal column.
During a sympathectomy, a surgeon cuts or clamps the sympathetic nerve chain runs up and down along your spine. This procedure is used to treat heavy sweating in the palms of the hands, the face, the underarms, and feet, as well as to treat facial blushing and Raynaud phenomenon.
X-rays of the skull may be performed to diagnose fractures of the bones of the skull, birth defects, tumors, and certain disorders that cause bone defects of the skull. Skull X-rays may also be used to evaluate the nasal sinuses and detect calcifications within the brain.
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.